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Full text of "Insects and mites on alfalfa in Alberta."

■ *^ ■ Agriculture 



Canada 

Research Direction generate 
Branch de la recherche 

Technical Bulletin 1988-3E 




Insects and mites on 
alfalfa in Alberta 



AGRICULTURE CANADA 
CCDE 88/01/19 NO, 

LIBRARY/BIBLIOTHEQUE OTTAWA KlA OC5 




Canada 









6a 



'•5 



*2 






Insects and mites on alfalfa in 
Alberta 



A.M. HARPER (Retired) 
Research Branch 
Lethbridge, Alberta 

Technical Bulletin 1988-3E 

Lethbridge Research Station Contribution No. 12 



Research Branch 
Agriculture Canada 
1988 



Copies of this publication are available from 

Dr. D.L. Struble, Section Head 

Forage and Field Crop Science 

Research Station 

Research Branch, Agriculture Canada 

Lethbridge, Alberta 

T1J4B1 

Produced by Research Program Service 

© Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1988 
Cat. No.: A54-8/1988-3E 
ISBN: 0-662-15777-X 



The dots on the map represent Agriculture 
Canada research establishments. 



CONTENTS 

Summary/Resume i 

Introduction 1 

Insects in Alfalfa 2 

Insect Pests and Predators 21 

Acknowledgments 22 

References 23 

Appendix I. Species of Insects in Alfalfa in Alberta 25 

Appendix II. Species of Mites in Alberta 38 



SUMMARY 

Four hundred and thirty-seven species of insects and nine species of 
mites have been collected from alfalfa grown in Alberta. The species are 
in 10 orders and 88 families. A number of the insects are pests of 
alfalfa or potential pests and many are predators or parasites. The 
significance of many of the insects has not been determined, nor have 
their interrelationships within the alfalfa ecosystem. 



RESUME 

Quatre cent trente-sept especes d'insectes et neuf d' especes d'acariens 
ont ete preleves de champs de luzerne cultives en Alberta. Les especes 
font partie de 10 ordres et de 88 families. Un certain nombre des insectes 
sont des ravageurs de la luzerne ou pourraient l'etre et beaucoup sont 
des predateurs ou des parasites. Le degre d ■ infestation de bon nombre 
de ces insectes reste a ete determiner, de meme leur role dans l'ecosysteme 
de la luzerne. 



INTRODUCTION 

There are 2.9 million hectares of alfalfa and alfalfa-grass hay grown in 
Canada, of which the province of Alberta produces about 25%. Although 
cultivated forage is produced on less than 25% of the forage land base, 
it accounts for 70% of the feed supply. Alfalfa is the most important 
and widely grown legume in Canada and is extremely important as an 
inexpensive plant protein source for beef and milk production. Losses 
due to insects could severely disrupt the forage-livestock system, 
especially in southern Alberta where alfalfa is produced on high-value 
irrigated land. 

There is limited knowledge about alfalfa insects in Alberta. Studies 
have been conducted on Adelphocoris (Lilly and Hobbs 1956), aphids 
(Harper and Kaldy 1982, Harper and Lilly 1966), bumble bees (Hobbs 1950), 
chemical control (Harper 1978), insect transmission of disease (Huang et 
al. 1983, Harper and Huang 1984), lygus (Salt 1945) and leaf cutter bees 
(Hobbs and Lilly 1954, Hobbs 1968). Craig (1973) and Harper (1981) 
published papers on alfalfa insect pests of the Canadian prairies. 
Information on the importance or relationships of some of the species has 
been obtained from Bierne (1971, 1972), Borrer and DeLong (1963), Essig 
(1947), Fluke (1929), Hodek (1973), Pimental and Wheeler (1973), and 
Stary (1974). 

This paper lists insects that have been found on alfalfa in Alberta and 
indicates the significance of the species that appear important to the 
crop. The insects were collected by sweep net, suction sampler, or by 
pitfall traps in the interior of alfalfa fields. 



- 2 - 



INSECTS IN ALFALFA 

Collembola - Springtails 
Poduridae 

Hypogastrura manubrialis (Tullberg) 

Sminthuridae 

Bourletiella hortensis (Fitch) 
Deuterosminthurus repandus (Agren. ) 
Sminthurinus elegans (Fitch) 
Sminthurinus medial is (Mills) 

The Collembola appear to be of little importance in alfalfa. Species in 
the family Poduridae, and the garden springtail, B. hortensis, may feed 
on seedlings of a wide variety of crops. D. repandus feeds on pollen. 

Orthoptera - Grasshoppers and crickets 

Acrididae 

Camnula pellucida (Scudder) 
Melanoplus bivittatus (Say) 
Melanoplus femurrubrum (DeGeer) 
Melanoplus packardii Scudder 
Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) 

Tettigoniidae 

Anabrus simplex Haldeman 

The grasshoppers are sometimes of considerable importance as pests of 
alfalfa. They can chew off the flowers and pods, greatly lower seed yields 
and severely reduce hay yields. Grasshoppers most often cause serious 
damage to irrigated alfalfa where the fields of alfalfa border a dryland 
area. As the dryland grain or grass matures and becomes undesirable for 
food, the grasshoppers may move in large numbers to the green alfalfa. 

The mormon cricket, A. simplex, feeds on plants but has not caused any 
serious damage to alfalfa in Alberta. 

Thysanoptera - Thrips 
Aeolothripidae 

Aeolothrips fasciatus (Linnaeus) 

Chirothripidae 

Chirothrips manicatus Haliday 
Chirothrips nr productus 

Phleothripidae 

Halothrips malifloris complex 



- 3 - 



Thripidae 

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergarde) 
Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (mountonii Hood) 
Limothrips denticornis Haliday 
Odontothrips loti (Haliday) 
Thrips tabaci Lindeman 

A. fasciatus is a very common and important predator in alfalfa and 
feeds mainly on pest thrips and mites. F. occidentalis has been reported 
to be a predator of alfalfa weevil eggs. T. tabaci feeds mainly on onions 
and L. denticornis feeds mainly on grasses and small grains. They do not 
appear to be important in alfalfa. O. loti, F. occidentalis and F. 
tritici are the common pest thrips found on alfalfa. 

Hemiptera - True bugs 

Anthocoridae 

Anthocoris antevolens White 
Orius tristicolor (White) 
Xylocoris umbrinus Van Duzee 

Miridae 

Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) 

Adelphocoris rapidus (Say) 

Adelphocoris superbus (Uhler) 

Atomoscelis modes tus (Van Duzee) 

Capsus simulans (Stal) 

Chlamydatus pulicarius (Fallen) 

Chlamydatus pullus (Reuter) 

Corizus sp. 

Deraeocoris brevis (Uhler) 

Deraeocoris histrio (Reuter) 

Hadronema militaris Uhler 

Ilnacora nr albifrons Knight 

Labops hesperus Uhler 

Labops simulans Stal 

Litomeris debilis (Uhler) 

Lopidea dakota Knight 

Lopus sp. 

Lygidea sp. 

Lygus boreal is (Kelton) 

Lygus desertinus Knight 

Lygus elisus Van Duzee 

Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) 

Lygus rufidorsus (Kelton) 

Lygus shulli (Knight) 

Lygus unctuosus Kelton 

Melanotrichus coagulatus (Uhler) 

Melanotricbus flavosparsus (Sahlberg) 

Mimoceps insignis Uhler 

Orectoderus obliquus Uhler 

Orthotylus fusicornis Knight 



- 4 - 



Phytocoris pallidicornis Reuter 
Plagiognathus obscurus Uhler 
Plagniognathus sp. 
Polymerus prob. zrufipes Knight 
Slaterocoris prob. stygicus Say 
Stenodema trispinosa (Reuter) 
Stenodema vicinum (Provancher) 
Stenodema virens Linnaeus 
Trigonotylus coelestialium (Kirkaldy) 
Trigonotylus ruficornis (Geoffroy) 
Xylocoris umbrinus (Van Duzee) 

Phymatidae 

Phymata Pennsylvania Handl. 

Reduviidae 

Sinea diadema Fabricius 

Nabidae 

Dolichonabis propinguus (Reuter) 
Nabis alternatus Parshley 
Nabis limbatus Dahlbom 
Nabis subcoleoptratus (Kirby) 
Nabis van duzee Kirk 

Tingidae 

Acalypta nyctalis Drake 
Corythucha coryli 0. and D. 

Piesmidae 

Piesma cinerea Say 

Lygaeidae 

Cymus luridis Stal 

Emblethis vicarius Horvath 

Geocoris atricolor Mont. 

Geocoris bullatus Say 

Geocoris discopterus (Stal) 

Geocoris nr pal lens 

Geocoris uliginosis Say 

Ligyrocoris sylvestris (Linnaeus) 

Lygaeus kalmii Stal 

Nysius ericae Schilling 

Nysius minutus Uhler 

Peritrichus saskatchewanensis Barb. 

Slaterobius insignis (Uhler) 

Sphragisticus nebulosus (Fall.) 

Zeridoneus costal is Van Duzee 



- 5 



Coreidae 

Alydus conspersus (Montandon) 
Alydus eurinus Say 
Coriomerus humulis Uhler 
Megalotamus quinquespinosus Say 
Rhopalus crassicornis (Linnaeus) 
Stictopleuris punctiventris (Dallas) 
Stictopleuris viridicatus (Uhler) 

Corizidae 

Coriza sp. 

Saldidae 

Saldula palustris (Douglas) 



Cydnidae 



Corimelaena pulicaria (Germ) 

Sehirus cinctus (Palisot de Beauvois) 



Scutelleridae 



Holcostethus limbolacius Stal 
Homaemus aeneifrons consors Uhler 

Pentatomidae 

Carpocoris remotus Horvath 
Codophila remotus (How. ) 
Coenus delius (Say) 
Cosmopepla bimaculata Thomas 
Neottiglossa undata Say 
Podisus placidus Uhler 
Sciocoris microphthalmus Flor. 
Thyanta punctiventris Van Duzee 

The anthorcorid, 0. tristicolor, is the most common predator in alfalfa. 
It feeds on aphids, mites, thrips, and small lepidoptera. A. antevolens 
feeds on similar prey but is only important in localized areas near trees. 
It is one of the important predators of Pemphigus gall aphids on Populus sp, 

The mirids D. histrio, D. brevis, and P. pallidicornis are predators 
but are not very common in alfalfa so are probably of limited importance. 
Kelton (1980) also indicated that O. obliquus was probably predaceous. 
Most of the other species appear to be plant feeders. A. lineolatus 
and the Lygus spp. are major pests of alfalfa, especially seed alfalfa. 
Lilly (1958) showed that Lygus spp. can be predatory on aphids. 

Chlamydatus, Labops, Stenodema and Trigonotylus species are 

commonly found in alfalfa but appear to prefer grasses and small grains. 

The phymatid P. Pennsylvania and the reduviid S. diadema are both general 
predators of pests as well as honeybees and other beneficial insects. 



- 6 - 



The nabids are all predators of aphids, leafhoppers, and other small 
insects, and lepidopterean eggs and larvae. N. alternatus is the most 
common nabid predator as it can be found in nearly every alfalfa field 
and is important as a control agent of the pea aphid, A. pisum. 

The tingids, piesmids and coreids are plant feeders but are not common in 
alfalfa. 

The lygaeid N. ericae, the false chinch bug, is commonly found on 
alfalfa. It is of little importance on that crop but can be important on 
small grains. P. saskatchewanensis feeds on alfalfa and can be readily 
found in most fields but only ocassionally causes much damage to the crop. 

All the species of geocorids listed are predatory. G. bullatus is the 
most common geocorid found in alfalfa. 

The saldid S. palustris is reported to be a predator of acguatic and 
semi-aquatic mites and insects. 

Some species of the pentatomid genus Podisus are predators of hairless 
lepidoptera. 

Homoptera 

Membracidae 

Campylenchia latipes Say 
Stictocephala basalis (Walker) 
Stictocephala bisonia (Kopp and Yke) 

Cicadellidae 

Aceratagallia arida Oman 

Aceratagallia sanguinolenta (Provancher) 

Acinopterus viridis Ball 

Agallia quadripunctata (Provancher) 

Agalliopsis ancistra Oman 

Ambysellus grex (Oman) 

Amplicephalus (Endria) inimica (Say) 

Aphrode-s bicinctus (Schrank) 

Athysanella sp. 

Auridius auratus (Gillette and Baker) 

Chlorotettix unicoloc (Fitch) 

Colladonus geminatus (Van Duzee) 

Colladonus montanus (Van Duzee) 

Deltocephalus lineatifrons Oman 

Diplocelenus (Verdanus) evansi (Ashmead) 

Dorycepbalus platyrhnchus Osb. 

Draeculacephala novaeboracensis (Fitch) 

Empoasca (Kyboasca) bipunctata (Osb.) 

Euscelidius maculipennis (DeL. and Dav.) ( =schenA"i Kirsch) 

Extrusanus extrusus (Van Duzee) 

Gyponana quebecensis (Provancher) 

Hecalus major (Osb.) 

Helocharis communis Fitch 



- 7 - 



Macrosteles fascifrons (Stal) 
Prairiana cinerea (Uhler) 
Psammotettix lividellus (Zett.) 
Sorhoanus uhler i (Oman) 
Streptanus deceptus (Sd. and DeLong) 



Cercopidae 



Philaenarcys bilineata (Say) 
Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus) 



Delphacidae 



Laccocera vittipennis Van Duzee 
Liburna occulusa Van Duzee 
Liburna pellucida Fabricius 
Liburna sp. 



Aphididae 



Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) 
Nearctaphis baker i (Cowen) 
Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) 

Psyllidae 

Aphalara sp. 
Livia sp. 
Psylla sp. 

The membracids, cicadellids, cercopids, and delphacids are readily found 
in alfalfa but do not appear to cause any serious damage to the crop. 
The cicadellids A. sanguinolenta, C. montanus and M. fascifrons are 
often present in alfalfa in very large numbers. 

The pea aphid, A. pisum, has been a major pest of alfalfa, especially 
in the irrigated areas. It is generally kept under control by early 
cutting of the crop and by predators and parasites. Populations of both 
N. bakeri and T. maculata, the spotted alfalfa aphid, have remained low. 
T. maculata was found for the first time in Alberta in 1981 and may not 
have had time to become well established. However, it has been a major 
pest of alfalfa in the southern United States, Australia and New Zealand 
and could become a serious pest in Alberta as it injects a toxin into the 
alfalfa as well as damages the plant by its feeding. 

Neuroptera 

Chrysopidae 

Chrysopa carnea Stephens (=plorobunda Fitch) 
Chrysopa oculata Say 

Chrysopa sp. are predaceous on aphids, mites, leaf hoppers, psyllids and 
small lepidoperta. In alfalfa both the above species are common predators 
of the pea aphid. 



- 8 - 



Lepidoptera 

Noctuidae 

Agrotis orthogonia Morrison 

Anagraphs (=Autographa) falcifera (Kirby) 

Autographa californica (Speyer) 

Discestra (=Scotogramma) trifolii (Hufnagel) 

Euxoa auxiliaris (Grote) 

Euxoa ochrogaster (Guenee) 

Pieridae 

Colias eury theme Boisduval 

Pyralidae 

Loxostege cerealis (Zeller) 
Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) 

The alfalfa looper, A. californica, and the alfalfa caterpillar, C. 
eurytheme, are found regularly in alfalfa but have as yet not caused 
serious problems. Larvae often have a high incidence of disease or 
parasitism. However, A. californica has at times seriously damaged 
canola in the province. The cutworms A. orthogonia, E. auxiliaris, E. 
ochrogaster and D. trifolii sometimes damage alfalfa but can only be 
considered to be minor pests. Established alfalfa sometimes harbors high 
populations of cutworms with no apparent effect. However, seedling 
alfalfa is sometimes severely affected. L. sticticalis, the sugarbeet 
webworm, is a major pest of sugarbeets in Alberta. Although it and L. 
cerealis, the alfalfa webworm, are commonly present in alfalfa they do 
not appear to have caused any serious damage. 

Coleoptera 

Carabidae 

Agonum corvus (LeConte) 

Agonum placidum (Say) 

Amara apricaria (Paykull) 

Amara carinata (LeConte) 

Amara farcta LeConte 

Amara lacustris LeConte 

Amara littoralis Mannerheim 

Amara obesa (Say) 

Amara quenseli (Schonherr) 

Amara torrida (Panzer) 

Axinopalpus biplagiatus (Dejean) 

Bembidion bimaculatum (Kirby) 

Bembidion coloradense Hayward 

Bembidion mutatum Gemminger and Harold 

Bembidion nitidum (Kirby) 

Bembidion obscurellum (Motschulsky) 

Bembidion praecinctum LeConte 

Bembidion quadrimaculatum (Linnaeus) 



- 9 - 



Bembidion rupicola (Kirby) 
Bembidion nr versicolor (LeConte) 
Bradycellus congener (LeConte) 
Bradycellus nigerrimus Lindroth 
Calosoma osoletum Say 
Harpalellus basilaris (Kirby) 
Harpalus amputatus Say 
Harpalus fumerarius Csiki 
Harpalus nr uteanus Casey 
Harpalus sp. 

Loricera pilicornis (Fabricius) 
Metabletus americanus (Dejean) 
Microlestes linearis (LeConte) 
Notiophilus aquaticus (Linneaus) 
Poecilus lucublandus (Say) 
Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) 
Stenolophus comma (Fabricius) 
Stenolophus conjunctus (Say) 

Hydrophilidae 

Helophorus orientalis Motsch. 

Staphylinidae 

Aleochara nr bimaculata (Grav.) 

Anotylus sobrinus (LeConte) 

Gabrius picipennis (Mannh. ) 

Gnypeta sp. 

Leptacinus intermedius Don 

Neohypnus hamatus (Say) 

Neohypnus obscurus (Er.) 

Philonthus concinnus (Grav.) 

Philonthus fuscipennis Mannh. 

Philonthus lautus Csy. 

Philonthus occidentalis Horn 

Philonthus sordidus (Grav.) 

Philonthus varius (Gyllenhal) 

Platystethus americanus Er. 

Stenus (Hypostenus) reconditus breviusculus Puthz 

Stenus (s.st.) morio Grav. 

Stenus (s.st.) occidentalis Csy ? 

Stenus vicinoides Puthz 

Tachyporus inornatus Campbell 

Tachyporus mexicanus Sharp 

Tachyporus nitidulus (Fabricius) 

Silphidae 

Aclypea bituberosa (LeConte) 

Histeridae 

Euspilotus insertus (LeConte) 



- 10 - 



Scarabaeidae 

Aphodius (?) albertanus Brown 
Aphodius alternatus Horn 
Aphodius granarius (Linneaus) 
Aphodius pinguis Hald. 
Onthophagus nuchicornis Linnaeus 

Eucinetidae 

Eucinetus terminalis LeConte 

Elateridae 

Aeolus mellillus (Say) 
Agriotes criddelei Van Dyke 
Ctenicera pudica (Brown) 
Dalopius pallidus Brown 
Hemicrepidius memnonius (Hbst.) 
Hypolithus bicolor Esch. 
Oedostethus femoralis LeConte 

Cantharidae 

Cantharis oregonus LeConte 
Cantharis sp. 

Lampyridae 

Ellychnia corrusca (Linnaeus) 
Ellychnia lacustris LeConte 

Dermestidae 

Dermestes sp. 

Anobiidae 

Caenocara scymnoides LeConte 
Xylentinus fucatus LeConte 

Cleridae 

Phyllobaenus sp. 
Trichodes nutalli Kirby 



Melyridae 



Collops bipunctatus Say 
Collops hirtellus LeConte 
Collops vittatus Say 
Malachius aeneus (Linnaeus) 



Meloidae 



Epicauta ferruginea (Say) 
Epicauta maculata (Say) 
Epicauta normalis Werner 



- 11 - 

Epicauta oregona Horn 
Epicauta pensylvanica (DeGeer) 
Epicauta puncticollis Mann 
Epicauta subglabra (Fall.) 
Lytta nuttali Say 

Mordellidae 

Mordellistena sp. 

Tenebrionidae 

Blastinus sp. 

Anthicidae 

Anthicus flavicans LeConte 
Anthicus hastatus Casey 
Anthicus lutulentus Casey 
Anthicus punctulatus LeConte 
Notoxus anchora Hentz 

Nitulidae 

Epuraea sp. 

Helodidae 

Cyphon variabilis Thunb. 

Cryptophagidae 

Anchicera sp. 

Cryptophagus acutangulus Gyllenhal 

Coccinillidae 

Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) 

Adalia frigida (Schneider) 

Brumoides septentrionis Weise 

Coccinella novemnottata Herbst 

Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown 

Coccinella trifasciata perplexa Mulsant 

Hippodamia caseyi Johnson 

Hippodamia convergens Guerin 

Hippodamia glacialis (Fabricius) 

Hippodamia parenthesis (Say) 

Hippodamia quinquesignata (Kirby) 

Hippodamia sinuata crotchi Casey 

Hippodamia tredecimpunctata tibialis (Say) 

Hyperaspidius vittigerus (LeConte) 

Hypecaspis inflexa Casey 

Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant 

Hyperaspis quadrivittata LeConte 

Hyperaspis undulata (Say) 

Scymnus (Pullus) caudalis LeConte 



- 12 - 



Scymnus (Pullus) postpictus Casey 
Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis LeConte 
Scymnus sp. 



Phalacridae 



Phalacrus sp. 

Stillbus apicalis Melsheimer 

Stillbus sp. 



Lathridiidae 



Corticarina sp. 
Enicmus mimus Fall 
Melanophthalma sp. 



Cerambycidae 



Crossidius pullchelus LeConte 
Tefcraope-s femoratus LeConte 

Chrysomelidae 

Altica sp. 

Calligrapha californica coreopsivora Brown 

Chaetocnema protensa LeConte 

Chaetocnema sp. 

Chrysolina sp. 

Crepidodera nana (Say) 

Disonycha latifrons Schaeffer 

Disonycha triangularis (Say) 

Entomoscelis americana Brown 

Galeruca browni Blake ? 

Gastrophysa cyanea Melsheimer 

Gastrophysa polygoni (Linnaeus) 

Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) 

Longi tarsus sp. 

Macrohaltica sp. 

Microrhophala vittata (Fabricius) 

Monoxia prob. angularis (LeConte) 

Monoxia puncticollis (Say) 

Pachybrachis sp. 

Phyllotreta albionica LeConte 

Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) 

Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius) 

Psylloides convexior LeConte 

Psylloides punctulata Melsheimer 

Trirhabda attenuata (Say) 

Trirhabda nr borealis Blake 

Trirhabda virgata LeConte 

Bruchidae ( =Mylabridae) 

Acanthoscelides perforatus (Horn) 
Bruchus fraterculus Horn 
Bruchus seminulum Horn 



- 13 - 



Curculionidae 

Amalus haemorrhous (Hbst.) 

Anthonomus sp. 

Apion sp. 

Ceutorhynchus americanus Buch. 

Ceutorhynchus punctiger Gyllenhal 

Ceutorhynchus sp. 

Euhrychiopsis albertana (Brown) 

Grypus equiseti (Fabricius) 

Hyper a postica (Gyllenhal) 

Hypera punctata (Fabricius) 

Lepesoma alternata (Horn) 

Listronotus sp. 

Nanodes canadensis (Brown) 

Notaris bimaculata (Fabricius) 

Otiorhynchus ovatus (Linnaeus) 

Panscopus aequalis (Horn) 

Pseudothonomus sp. 

Sitona cylindricollis Fahraeus 

Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius) 

Sitona lepidus Gyllenhal 

Sitona scissifrons Say 

Tychius picirostris (Fabricius) 

Many species of carabids are carnivorous, nocturnal, and typically 
hunters. They feed on almost any living animal that they can overcome. 
Some probably feed on aphids that fall off alfalfa plants. Some species 
of Amara, Harpalus, and Pterostichus are known to destroy seeds, berries, 
and plants. The ground beetles in alfalfa have not been well studied. 
Thirty-seven species have been found in alfalfa in Alberta and Vas'kin 
(1985) reported 53 species on alfalfa in Russia. He reported that the 
ratio of predatory ground beetles to those with mixed feeding habits was 
100:1. The carabid complex appears to be one of the most promising 
groups of predators for integrated control of insect pests in alfalfa. 

Some species of hydrophylids of the genus Helophorus feed on roots and 
leaves of young plants but others are scavengers or predaceous. The 
family is uncommon in alfalfa. 

The staphylinids are mainly carnivorous or saprophagous and are often 
found around decaying organic matter and dung. Some are predatory on 
diptera and others are associated with ants. Staphylinids, especially 
some species of Tachyporus, may also feed on aphids that fall off 
alfalfa plants. 

The silphid, A. bituberosa, although commonly found in alfalfa does not 
appear to cause any damage to the crop. It is mainly a pest of sugar 
beets. 

The histerids are associated with carrion or dung but many are 
saprophagous or predaceous. Their significance in alfalfa is not known. 



- 14 - 



The scarabaeids are mainly leaf chafers, scavengers and dung feeders. 
There are over 100 species of dung-feeding Aphodius in the prairie and 
grassland areas of north America. 

The elaterids or wireworms are mainly subterranean feeders on seeds and 
plants in the larval stage. They can ause significant damage in alfalfa 
that is seeded into newly broken sod. 

The cantharids and lampyrids are mainly predaceous families of beetles. 
The cantharids feed mainly on aphids, meally bugs, and other small 
insects and are often found in flowers. The lampyrids are predaceous on 
caterpillars and other insect larvae. 

The dermestids and the anobiids generally feed on dead animals and dried 
plant material. 

The clerids and the melyrids are predatory families. T. nutalli 
catches insects such as bees at alfalfa flowers. C. bipunctatus and 
C. vittatus feed on aphids. 

The meloids are plant feeders as adults but have not been of economic 
importance on alfalfa in Alberta. The larvae feed on eggs of grasshoppers 
or brood chambers of ground nesting bees. Adults yield cantharidin which 
is used medicinally as an aphrodisiac, a vesicator, and a diuretic, and 
is known as "Spanish Fly". Some species of Epicauta are known to cause 
death to horses when eaten with infested alfalfa hay. 

The mordellid larvae live in decaying wood but some species are predatory. 

The tenebrionids feed mainly on dead and decaying organic matter. The 
nitulids are mainly saprophagous in both the adult and larval stages. 
The cyrptophagids live on fungi and decaying organic matter. 

The coccinellids feed mainly on soft-bodied insects such as aphids and 
coccids and are important predators in alfalfa. Five species important 
as predators of the pea aphid and readily found in alfalfa fields are C. 
transversoguttata richardsoni, H. parenthesis, H. quinquesignata, H. 
sinuata disjuncta, and H. tredecimpunctata. Two other pea aphid 
predators that can be found in most fields are C. trifasciata perplexa 
and C. novemnottata. 

The phalacrids and the latridiids are predatory. S. apicalis is a pea 
aphid predator. 

The cerambycid genera Crossidius and Tetraopes- attack roots and stems 
of small plants. 

The chrysomelids are all plant feeders and include: the red turnip 
beetle, E. americana; the Colorado potato beetle, L. decemlineata; 
the three spotted flea beetle, D. triangularis; the cabbage flea beetle, 
P. albionica; the crucifera flea beetle, P. ccuciferae; the striped 
flea beetle, P. striolata, and the hop flea beetle, P. punctula. 
None of these chrysomelids is causing damage to alfalfa in Alberta. 



- 15 - 



The bruchids are the seed weevils. 

The curculonids are the weevils which include: the blue turnip weevil, 
C. americanus; the alfalfa weevil, H. postica; the clover weevil, H. 
punctata; the strawberry root weevil, 0. ovatus; the sweetclover 
weevil, S. cylindcicollis; the clover root weevil, S. hispidulus; the 
alfalfa curculio, S. scissifrons, and the clover seed weevil. The 
alfalfa weevil has caused damage to alfalfa on numerous occasions in 
Alberta. Although the alfalfa curculio is very common in alfalfa fields 
and can cause seedling damage it does not appear to be of economic 
importance. The insect has caused damage to sainfoin in Montana. 

Diptera 

Bibionidae 

Bibio sp. 

Tabanidae 

Chrysops mitis Osten Sacken 

Stratiomyiidae 

Sargus coprarius (Linnaeus) 
Sargus viridis Say 
Stratiomys normula Loew 

Therevidae 

Psilocephala aldrichi Coguillett 
Thereva duplicis Coquillett 

Asilidae 

Asilus sp. 

Stenopogon inquinatus Loew 

Bombyliidae 

Systoechus vulgaris Loew 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopus bifractus Loew 
Dolichopus brevipennis Loew 
Dolichopus conspectus Van Duzee 
Dolichopus jugalis Tucker 
Dolichopus plumipes (Scopoli) 
Dolichopus ramifer Loew 
Dolichopus renidescens M. and B. 
Dolichopus sp. 
Raphium campestre Cn. 
Scellus monstrosus Osten. Sacken 

Lonchopteridae 

Lonchoptera furcata Fallen 



- 16 - 



Phoridae 

Megaselia sp. 

Syrphidae 

Eupoedes volucris Osten Sacken 

Helophilus latifrons Loew 

Metasyrphus lapponicus (Zetterstedt) 

Metasyrphus sp. 

Scaeva pyrastri (Linnaeus) 

Sphaerophoria philanthus (Meigen) (=robusta Cn. ) 

Sphaerophoria sp. 

Syritta pipiens (Linnaeus) 

Syrphus torvus Osten Sacken 

Syrphus vitripennis Meigen 

Otitidae 

Ceroxys latiusculus (Loew) 
Tetanops myopaeformis (Roder) 

Tephrididae 

Paroxyna pygmaea Novak 
Tephritis sp. 

Agromyzidae 

Liriomya sp. 

Lauxanidae 

Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell 

Heleomyzidae 

Pseudoleria sp. 

Chloropidae 

Thaumatomyia bistriata (Walker) 
Thaumatomyia glabra Meigen 

Scathophagidae 

Scathophaga stercoraria Linnaeus 

An thorny iidae 

Hylemya (Delia) extremitata Malloch 
Hylemya (Delia) platura (Meigen) 
Hylemya (Pegohylemya) fugax (Meigen) 
Pegomyia sp. 

Muscidae 

Helina duplicata (Meigen) 
Limosia cilicauda (Malloch) 



- 17 - 



Musca domestica Linnaeus 
Myospila meditabunda (Fabricius) 
Ophyra leucostoma (Wiedemann) 
Quadrularia laetifica (Rob.-Des.) 



Calliphoridae 



Bufolucilia silvarum (Meigen) 
Pollenia rudis (Fabricius) 



Sarcophagidae 



Blaesoxipha atlanis (Aldrich) 
Blaesoxipha kellyi (Aldrich) 
Blaesoxipha sp. 
Ravinia querula (Walker) 
Sarcophaga harpax (Pandelle) 
Sarcophaga sinuata Meigen 

Tachinidae 

Dinera grisescens (Fallen) 
Leucostoma simplex (Fallen) 
Peleteria iterans (Walker) 

The asilid S. inquinatus was reported by Hobbs (1956) to kill honey 
bees. 

The bombyliids of the genus Systoechus are reported to be ecto- 
parasites on beetle larvae living in the soil, especially scarabaeids 
(Askew 1971). 

The dolichopodid are all predatory and the phorid genus Megaselia is 
parasitic, probably on millipeds. 

The syrphids are generally predators of aphids. E. volucris, S. 
pyrastri, S. philanthus and S. torvus are all important predators of 
the pea aphid. 

The otitid, T. mypaeformis , the sugarbeet root maggot, is frequently 
found in alfalfa fields in the irrigated areas where sugarbeets are grown, 

The chloropid genus Thaumatomyia is known to be predatory on aphids. 

T. glabra is the most important predator of the sugarbeet root aphid in 

Alberta and Montana. 

M. domestica is the common house fly. Some of the flies in the genus 
Ophrya cause myasis (Askew 1971). 

The calliphorid fly P. rudis is a parasite of earthworms. 

Some sarcophagids in the genus Blaesoxipha are parasites of grasshoppers 
(Askew 1971). 



- 18 - 



Some species in the genus Sarcophaga are parasites of grasshoppers 
(Askew 1971). 

Many of the tachinids parasitize hymenoptera, coleoptera, diptera, 
lepidoptera and orthoptera (Askew 1971). L. simplex is a parasite of 
the predator N. alternatus. 

Hymenoptera 

Ichneumonidae 

Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson) 
Hyposoter sp. 

Braconidae 

Meteorus proximus Cress. 

Dinocampus (=Perlitus) coccinellae Schrank 

Wesmalia pendula Foester 

Aphidiidae 

Aphid ius ervi Haliday 

Aphidius pulcher Baker 

Aphidius smithi Sharma and Subbo Roa 

Praon (prob. ) exoletum palitans Muesbeck 

Praon pequodorum Vierck 

Pteromalidae 

Asaphes suspensus (Nees) 
Asaphes vulgaris (Walker) 
Pachyneuron sp. 

Megachilidae 

Megachile brevis Say 
Megachile dentitarsus Sladen 
Megachile frigida Sm. 
Megachile melanophae Sm. 
Megachile perhirta Ckll. 
Megachile rotundata Fabricius 

Apidae 

Apis mellifera Linnaeus 
Bombus boreal is Kirby 
Bombus fervidus Fabricius 
Bombus huntii Greene 
Bombus nevadensis Cress. 
Bombus occidentalis Greene 
Bombus rufocinctus Cress. 
Bombus ternarius Say 
Bombus terricola Kirby 

Alloxystidae 

Alloxysta sp. 



- 19 - 

Ceraphronidae 

Attritomellus (=Dendrocerus) niger (Howard) 

Many hymenoptera are parasites, hyperparasites, or pollinators. 

The ichneumonid B. curculionis is an important parasite of the alfalfa 
weevil, H. postica. 

The braconid M. proximus is a parasite of the alfalfa caterpillar, C. 
eurytheme. D. coccinellae is a parasite of coccinellids which are 
predators of the pea aphid. W. pendula is a parasite of the western 
damsel bug, N. alternatus, which is a predator of the pea aphid and 
other small insects in alfalfa. Neither D. coccinellae nor W. pendula 
appear to severely limit predator populations at present as coccinellids 
and N. alternatus are present in all alfalfa fields in Alberta. 

The aphidiid parasites in the genera Aphidius and Praon are parasites 
of aphids. They are important in the control of the pea aphid, A. pisum. 
A few specimens of A. smithi were found in southern Alberta in 1970. 
These were augmented by rearing large numbers in the laboratory and in 
field cages and releasing them thoughout the irrigated areas. The 
parasite is now well established and has become one of the most important 
control agents for the pea aphid in the province. 

A. suspensus is a hyperparasite of D. coccinellae and may be one of 
the reasons that the parasite of coccinellids is not more important. A. 
vulgaris is a hyperparasite of Aphidius spp. and Charips spp. It 
does not appear to seriously reduce populations of A. smithi, the most 
important parasite of A. pisum in Alberta. 

The megachilids are pollinators of alfalfa. The first five species are 
native pollinators that nest in sod, while M. rotundata is the alfalfa 
leafcutter bee that has been domesticated for pollination of alfalfa. 

A. mellifera, the honey bee, is found in all alfalfa fields but is not 
an important pollinator of alfalfa. 

Bombus species are pollinators but many of them prefer red or sweet 
clover rather than alfalfa. 

Charips spp. are hyperparasites of hymenopterous parasites. 

A. niger is a hyperparasite of D. coccinellidae and may be quite 
important in keeping this parasite of coccinellids under control. 

Acari 

Ameroseiidae 

Ameroseius corbicula (Sowerby) 

Bdellidae 

Biscirus silvaticus (Kramer) 



- 20 - 

Cunaxidae 

Cunaxoides biscutum (Nesbitt) 

Erythraeidae 

Abrolophus sp. 

Oributulidae 

Oribatula tibialis (Nicolet) 

Phytoseiidae 

Amblyseius iroquois Chant and Hansell 

Tetranychidae 

Petrobia latens (Muller) 
Tetranychus urticae (Koch) 

Trombiidae 

Trombidium sp. 

Mites generally are not serious problems in alfalfa in the field. In 
greenhouses, however, where there are no predators, mites must be 
freguently controlled by miticides. The tetranychid mites found in 
alfalfa are of considerable importance; T. urticae, the two spotted 
mite, is often a problem in greenhouses, and P. latens, the brown wheat 
mite, has been a problem on wheat and barley in southern Alberta. Mites 
in the genus Amblyseius are predators on other mites. 



- 21 - 



INSECT PESTS AND PREDATORS 

In alfalfa in Alberta there are a number of insects that are pests or 
potential pests. These include: the pea aphid, A. pisum; the spotted 
alfalfa aphid, T. maculata; the alfalfa weevil, H. postica; the 
alfalfa curculio, S. scissifrons; the adelphocorids A. lineolatus, 
A. superbus and A. rapidus; several Lygus spp.; several grasshoppers, 
Melanoplus spp.; the alfalfa caterpillar, C. eurytheme; the alfalfa looper, 
A. califocnica; cutworms, Euoxa spp.; the alfalfa webworm, L. cereralis; 
wireworms; the thrips O. loti, F. occidentalis and F. tritici; the 
lygaeid P. saskatchewanensis, and the blister beetles Epicauta spp. and L. 
nuttali. The mite genus Amblysius is also predatory. 

There are also a number of predators and parasites in alfalfa. Predators 
include: the thrip A. fasciatus; anthocorids A. antevolens, and 0. 
tristicolor; mirids D. histro, D. brevis, P. pallidicornis and 0. 
obliquus; the phymatid P. Pennsylvania; the reduviid S. diadema; 
several nabid species; several geocorids; many carabids; many 
staphalinids; the cantharid C. oregonus; the lampyrids E. corrusca 
and L. lacustris; the clerid T. nutalli; melyrids Collops spp.; 
several meloids; many coccinellids in the genera Adalia, Brumus, 
Coccinella, Hippodamia, Hyper asp idius , Hyperaspis and Scymnus; the 
phalacrid S. apicalis; several lathridiids; the bombyliid S. 
vulgaris; several dolichopodids, and the chloropids Thaumatomyia spp. 
The parasites include: the sarcophagids Blaesoxipha spp.; several 
tachnids; the ichneumonds B. curculionis and Hyposoter sp.; the 
braconids M. proximus, D. coccinellae and W. pendula; the aphidiids 
Aphidius spp. and Praon spp.; and the Pteromalids A. suspensus, A. 
vulgaris and PacTii/neuron . 



- 22 - 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The author is indebted to a number of specialists who identified insects 
for him. These include: Coleoptera (E. C. Becker, J. Belicek, Y. 
Bousquet, D. E. Bright, J. M. Campbell, A. E. Davies, R. deRuette, L. 
LeSage, J. McNamara, E. Ricky, A. Smetana); Collembola (W. R. Richards); 
Diptera (B. Cooper, J. F. McAlpine, B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. 
Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth, H. C. W. Walther, D. M. Wood); Hemiptera (D. 
Brown, L. A. Kelton, G. G. E. Scudder); Homoptera (K. G. A. Hamilton, W. 
R. Richards); Hymenoptera (H. E. Bisdee, G. A. Hobbs, C. C. Loan, M. J. 
P. Mackauer, L. Masner, W. R. M. Mason, C. M. Yoshimoto); Lepidoptera (J, 
R. Byers, L. A. Jacobson, G. Lewis), Neuroptera (J. E. H. Martin); 
Orthoptera (D. S. Smith); Thysanoptera (B. Heming, B. Stewart); Acarina 
(Mites) (E. E. Lindquist) . 



- 23 - 



REFERENCES 

Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic insects. Am. Elsevier Pub. Co. Inc., New 
York, New York. 316 pp. 

Batulla, B. A. and A. G. Robinson. 1983. A list of predators of aphids 
(Homoptera: Aphididae) collected in Manitoba. Proc. Entomol. Soc. 
Manitoba. 39:25-45. 

Bierne, B. P. 1971. Pests of annual crops in Canada. I. Lepidoptera. 
II. Diptera. III. Coleoptera. Memoirs Entomol. Soc. Canada. No. 
78. 124 pp. 

Bierne, B. P. 1972. Pests of annual crops in Canada. IV. Hemiptera- 
Homoptera. V. Orthoptera. VI. Other groups. Memoirs Entomol. Soc. 
Canada. No. 85. 73 pp. 

Borrer, D. J. and D. M. Leong. 1963. An introduction to the study of 
insects. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York. 819 pp. 

Craig, C. H. 1973. Insect pests of legume and grass crops in western 
Canada. Agric. Canada Publ. 1435. 19 pp. 

Essig, E. 0. 1947. College entomology. The MacMillan Company, New York, 
900 pp. 

Fluke, C. L. 1929. Known predaceous and parasitic enemies of the pea 
aphid in North America. Agric. Expt. Sta. Univ. Wise. Bull. 93. 47 
pp. 

Harper, A. M. 1978. Effects of insecticides on the pea aphid, 

Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and associated fauna on 
alfalfa. Can. Entomol. 110:891-894. 

Harper, A. M. 1981. Forage insects. Pp. 59-66, 71-80 in Alberta Forage 
Manual. Alberta Agric. Edmonton, Alberta. Agdex 120/20-4. 

Harper, A. M. and M. S. Kaldy. 1982. Effect of the pea aphid, 

Acyrthosiphon pisum on yield and quality of forage alfalfa. Can. 
Entomol. 114:485-489. 

Harper, A. M. and H. C. Huang. 1984. Contamination of insects by the 
plant pathogen Verticillium albo-atcum in an alfalfa field. 
Environ. Entomol. 13:117-120. 

Hobbs, G. A. 1950. Pollinating species of bees in irrigated regions of 
southern Alberta. Rep. 12, Alfalfa Improvement Conf. Pp. 47-51. 

Hobbs, G. A. 1956. Ecology of the leaf-cutter bee Megachile perhirta 
Ckll. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to seed production. 
Can. Entomol. 38(11) : 625-631 

Hobbs, G. A. 1968. Controlling insect enemies of the alfalfa leaf- 
cutting bee, Megachile rotundata. Can. Entomol. 100:781-784. 



- 24 - 



Hobbs, G. A. and C. E. Lilly. 1954. Ecology of species of Megachile 
latreille in the mixed prairie region of southern Alberta with 
special reference to pollination of alfalfa. Ecology 35:453-462. 

Hodek, I. 1973. Biology of coccinellidae. Academia Publ. House of 
Czechoslovak Acad. Sci., Prague. 260 pp. 

Huang, H. C, A. M. Harper, E. G. Kokko, and R. J. Howard. 1983. Aphid 
transmission of Verticillium albo-atcum to alfalfa. Can. J. Plant 
Pathol. 5:141-147. 

Kelton, L. A. 1980. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Part 8. The 
plant bugs of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Heteroptera: Miridae. 
Research Branch, Agric. Canada Publ. 1703. 

Lilly, C. E. 1958. Observations on predation by the plant bug, Liocoris 
borealis Kelton (Hemiptera: Miridae). Can. Entomol. 90:420-421. 

Lilly, C. E. and G. A. Hobbs . 1956. Biology of the superb plant bug, 
Adelphocoris superbus (Uhl.), (Hemiptera: Miridae) in southern 
Alberta. Can. Entomol. 88:118-125. 

Pimental, D. and A. G. Wheeler. 1973. Species and diversity of 

Arthopods in the alfalfa community. Environ. Entomol. 2(4) : 659-668. 

Salt, R. W. 1945. Number of generations of Lygus hesperus Knt. and 
L. elisus Van D. in Alberta. Sci. Agric. 25:573-576. 

Sopp, P. and S. D. Wratten. 1986. Rates of consumption of cereal aphids 
by some polyphagus predators in the laboratory. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 
41:69-74. 

Stary, P. 1974. Population dynamics, parasitism, control, and prognosis 
of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) in Czechoslovakia. 
Discussions Mathematics and Natural Science. Czechoslovak. Acad. 
Sci., Prague 84(3): 1-123. 

Vas'kin, D. V. 1985. Integrated protection of seed lucerne against 
insect pests. Zashchita rastenii [Plant protection] 11:23-25. 
(English translation). 



- 25 - 



Appendix I. List of Species of Insects in Alfalfa in Alberta 



Acalypta nyctalis Drake 

Acanthoscelides perforatus (Horn) 

Aceratagallia arida Oman 

Aceratagallia sanguinolenta (Provancher) 

Acinopterus viridis Ball 

Aclypea bituberosa (LeConte) 

Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) 

Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) 

Adalia frigida (Schneider) 

Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) 

Adelphocoris rapidus (Say) 

Adelphocoris superbus (Uhler) 

Aeolothrips fasciatus (Linnaeus) 

Aeolus mellillus (Say) 

Agallia quadripunctata (Provancher) 

Agalliopsis ancistra Oman 

Agonum corvus (LeConte) 

Agonum placidum (Say) 

Agriotes criddelei Van Dyke 

Agrotis orthogonia Morrison 

Aleochara nr bimaculata (Grav.) 

Alloxysta sp. 

Altica sp. 

Alydus conspersus (Montandon) 

Alydus eurinus Say 

Amalus haemorrhous (Hbst. ) 

Amara apricara (Paykull) 

Amara carinata (LeConte) 

Amara farcta LeConte 

Amara lacustris LeConte 

Amara littoralis Mannerheim 

Amara obesa (Say) 

Amara quenseli (Schonherr) 

Amara torrida (Panzer) 



Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Thysanoptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 



Tingidae 

Bruchidae 

Cicadellidae 

Cicadellidae 

Cicadellidae 

Silphidae 

Aphididae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Aeolothripidae 

Elateridae 

Cicadellidae 

Cicadellidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Elateridae 

Noctuidae 

Staphylinidae 

Alloxystidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Coreidae 

Coreidae 

Curculionidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 



- 26 - 



Ambysellus grex (Oman) 

Amplicephalus (Endria) inimica (Say) 

Anabrus simplex Haldeman 

Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) 

Anchicera sp. 

Anotylus sobrinus (LeConte) 

Anthicus flavicans LeConte 

Anthicus hastatus Casey 

Anthicus lutulentus Casey 

Anthicus punctulatus LeConte 

Anthocoris antevolens White 

Anthonomus sp. 

Aphalara sp. 

Aphidius ervi Haliday 

Aphidius pulcher Baker 

Aphidius smithi Sharma and Subbo Roa 

Aphodius (?) albertanus Brown 

Aphodius alternatus Horn 

Aphodius granarius (Linneaus) 

Aphodius pinguis Hald. 

Aphrodes bicinctus (Schrank) 

Apion sp. 

Apis mellifera Linnaeus 

Asaphes suspensus (Nees) 

Asaphes vulgaris (Walker) 

Asilus sp. 

Athysanella sp. 

Atomoscelis modes tus (Van Duzee) 

Attritomellus niger (Howard) 

Auridius auratus (Gillette and Baker) 

Autographa californica (Speyer) 

Axinopalpus biplagiatus Dejean 

Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson) 

Bembidion bimaculatum (Kirby) 

Bembidion coloradense Hayward 



Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Orthoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hymenoptera 

Homoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 



Cicadellidae 

Cicadellidae 

Tettigoniidae 

Noctuidae 

Cryptophagidae 

Staphylinidae 

Anthicidae 

Anthicidae 

Anthicidae 

Anthicidae 

Anthocoridae 

Curculionidae 

Psyllidae 

Aphidiidae 

Aphidiidae 

Aphidiidae 

Scarabaeidae 

Scarabaeidae 

Scarabaeidae 

Scarabaeidae 

Cicadellidae 

Cnidae 

Apidae 

Pteromalidae 

Pteromalidae 

Asilidae 

Cicadellidae 

Miridae 

Ceraphonidae 

Cicadellidae 

Noctuidae 

Carabidae 

Ichneumonidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 



- 27 - 



Bembidion mutatum Genuninger and Harold 

Bembidion nitidum (Kirby) 

Bembidion obscurellum (Motschulsky) 

Bembidion praecinctum LeConte 

Bembidion quadrimaculatum (Linnaeus) 

Bembidion rupicola (Kirby) 

Bembidion nr versicolor (LeConte) 

Bibio sp. 

Blaesoxipha atlanis (Aldrich) 

Blaesoxipha kellyi (Aldrich) 

Blaesoxipha sp. 

Blastinus sp. 

Bombus borealis Kirby 

Bombus fervidus Fabricius 

Bombus huntii Greene 

Bombus nevadensis Cress. 

Bombus occidentalis Greene 

Bombus rufocinctus Cress. 

Bombus ternarius Say 

Bombus terricola Kirby 

Bourletiella hortensis (Fitch) 

Bradycellus congener (LeConte) 

Brady cellus nigerrimus Lindroth 

Bruchus fraterculus Horn 

Bruchus seminulum Horn 

Brumoides septentrionis Weise 

Bufolucilia silvarum (Meigen) 

Caenocara scymnoides LeConte 

Calligrapha californica 

coreopsivora Brown 
Calosoma osoletum Say 
Camnula pellucida (Scudder) 
Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell 
Campylenchia latipes Say 
Cantharis oregonus LeConte 



Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Collembola 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Orthoptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 



Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Bibionidae 

Sarcophagidae 

Sarcophagidae 

Sarcophagidae 

Tenebrionidae 

Apidae 

Apidae 

Apidae 

Apidae 

Apidae 

Apidae 

Apidae 

Apidae 

Sminthuridae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Bruchidae 

Bruchidae 

Coccinellidae 

Calliphoridae 

Anobiidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Carabidae 

Acrididae 

Lauxanidae 

Membracidae 

Cantharidae 



- 28 - 



Cantharis sp. 

Capsus simulans (Stal) 

Carpocoris remotus Horvath 

Ceroxys latiusculus (Loew) 

Ceutorhynchus americanus Buch. 

Ceutorhynchus punctiger Gyllenhal 

Ceutorhynchus sp. 

Chaetocnema protensa LeConte 

Chaetocnema sp. 

Chirothrips manicatus Haliday 

Chirothrips nr productus 

Chlamydatus pulicarius (Fallen) 

Chlamydatus pullus (Reuter) 

Chlorotettix unicolor (Fitch) 

Chryptophagus acutangulus Gyllenhal 

Chrysolina sp. 

Chrysopa carnea Stephens 

Chrysopa oculata Say 

Chrysopa plorobunda see C. Carnea 

Chrysops mitis Osten Sacken 

Coccinella novemnottata Herbst 

Coccinella transversoguttata riqhardsoni 

Brown 
Coccinella trifasciata 

perplexa Mulsant 
Codophila remotus (How.) 
Coenus delius (Say) 
Colias eury theme Boisduval 
Colladonus geminatus (Van Duzee) 
Colladonus montanus (Van Duzee) 
Collops bipunctatus Say 
Collops hirtellus LeConte 
Collops vittatus Say 
Corimelaena pulicaria (Germ) 
Coriomerus humulis Uhler 
Coriza sp. 



Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Thysanoptera 

Thysanoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Neuroptera 

Neuroptera 

Neuroptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Lepidoptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 



Cantharidae 

Miridae 

Pentatomidae 

Otitidae 

Curculionidae 

Curculionidae 

Curculionidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chirothripidae 

Chirothripidae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Cicadellidae 

Cryptophagidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysopidae 

Chrysopidae 

Chrysopidae 

Tabinida 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Pentatomidae 

Pentatomidae 

Pieridae 

Cicadellidae 

Cidadellidae 

Melyridae 

Melyridae 

Melyridae 

Cydnidae 

Coreidae 

Corizidae 



- 29 - 



Cocizus sp. 

Corticarina sp. 

Corythucha coryli 0. and D. 

Cosmopepla bimaculata Thomas 

Crepidodera nana (Say) 

Crossidius pullchelus LeConte 

Cryptophagus acutangulus Gyllenhal 

Ctenicera pudica (Brown) 

Cymus luridis Stal 

Cyphon variabilis Thunb. 

Dalopius pallidus Brown 

Deltocephalus lineatifrons Oman 

Dendrocerus see Attritomellus 

Deraeocoris brevis (Uhler) 

Deraeocoris histrio (Reuter) 

Dermestes sp. 

Deuterosminthurus repandus (Agren.) 
Dinera grisescens (Fallen) 
Dinocampus coccinellae Schrank 
Diplocelenus (Verdanus) evansi 

(Ashmead) 
Discestra trifolii (Hufnagel) 
Disonycha latifrons Schaeffer 
Disonycha triangularis (Say) 
Dolichonabis propinguus (Reuter) 
Dolichopus bifractus Loew 
Dolichopus brevipennis Loew 
Dolichopus conspectus Van Duzee 
Dolichopus jugalis Tucker 
Dolichopus plumipes (Scopoli) 
Dolichopus ramifer Loew 
Dolichopus renidescens M. and B. 
Dolichopus sp. 

Dorycephalus platyrhnchus Osb. 
Draeculacephala novaeboracensis (Fitch) 
Ellychnia corrusca (Linnaeus) 



Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Collembola 

Diptera 

Hymenoptera 

Homoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 



Miridae 

Lathridiidae 

Tingidae 

Pentatomidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Cerambycidae 

Cryptophagidae 

Elateridae 

Lygaeidae 

Helodidae 

Elateridae 

Cicadellidae 

Ceraphonidae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Dermestidae 

Sminthuridae 

Tachinidae 

Braconidae 

Cicadellidae 

Noctuidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Nabidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Cicadellidae 

Cicadellidae 

Lampyridae 



- 30 - 



Ellychnia lacustris LeConte 

Emblethis vicarius Horvath 

Empoasca (Kyboasca) bipunctata (Osb.) 

Enicmus mimus Fall. 

Entomoscelis americana Brown 

Epicauta ferruginea (Say) 

Epicauta maculata (Say) 

Epicauta normalis Werner 

Epicauta oregona Horn 

Epicauta pensylvanica (DeGeer) 

Epicauta puncticollis Mann 

Epicauta subglabra (Fall.) 

Epuraea sp . 

Eucinetus terminalis LeConte 

Euhrychiopsis albertana (Brown) 

Eupoedes volucris Osten Sacken 

Euscelidius maculipennis (DeL. and Dav. ) 

Euspilotus insertus (LeConte) 

Euxoa auxiliaris (Grote) 

Euxoa ochrogaster (Guenee) 

Extrusanus extrusus (Van Duzee) 

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergarde) 

Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) 

Gabrius picipennis (Mannh. ) 

Galeruca browni Blake ? 

Gastrophysa cyanea Melsheimer 

Gastrophysa polygoni (Linnaeus) 

Geocoris atricolor Mont. 

Geocoris bullatus Say 

Geocoris discopterus (Stal) 

Geocoris nr pallens 

Geocoris uliginosis Say 

Gnypeta sp. 

Grypus equiseti (Fabricius) 

Gyponana quebecensis (Provancher) 

Hadronema militaris Uhler 



Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Homoptera 

Thysanoptera 

Thysanoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Hemiptera 



Lampyridae 

Lygaeidae 

Cicadellidae 

Lathridiidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Meloidae 

Meloidae 

Meloidae 

Meloidae 

Meloidae 

Meloidae 

Meloidae 

Nitulidae 

Eucinetidae 

Curculionidae 

Syrphidae 

Cicadellidae 

Histeridae 

Noctuidae 

Noctuidae 

Cicadellidae 

Thripidae 

Thripidae 

Staphylinidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Lygaeidae 

Lygaeidae 

Lygaeidae 

Lygaeidae 

Lygaeidae 

Staphylinidae 

Curculionidae 

Cicidallidae 

Miridae 



- 31 - 



Halothrips malifloris complex 
Harpalellus basilaris (Kirby) 
Harpalus amputatus Say 
Harpalus fumerarius Csiki 
Harpalus nr uteanus Casey 
Harpalus sp. 
Hecalus major (Osb.) 
Helina duplicata (Meigen) 
Helocharis communis Fitch 
Helophilus latrifrons Loew 
Helophorus orientalis Motsch. 
Hemicrepidius memnonius (Hbst. ) 
Hippodamia caseyi Johnson 
Hippodamia convergens Guerin 
Hippodamia glacialis (Fabricius) 
Hippodamia parenthesis (Say) 
Hippodamia quinquesignata (Kirby) 
Hippodamia sinuata crotchi Casey 
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata 

tibialis (Say) 
Holcostethus limbolarius Stal 
Homaemus aeneifrons consors Uhler 
Hylemya (Delia) extremitata Malloch 
Hylemya (Delia) platura (Meigen) 
Hylemya (Pegohylemya) fugax (Meigen) 
Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) 
Hypera punctata (Fabricius) 
Hyper aspidius vittigerus (LeConte) 
Hyperaspis inflexa Casey 
Hyperaspis lateralis Mulsant 
Hyperaspis quadrivittata LeConte 
Hyperaspis undulata (Say) 
Hypogastrura manubrialis (Tullberg) 
Hypolithus bicolor Esch. 
Hyposoter sp. 
Ilnacora nr albifrons Knight 



Thysanoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Collembola 

Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hemiptera 



Phleothripidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Cicadellidae 

Muscidae 

Cidadellidae 

Syrphidae 

Hydrophi 1 idae 

Elateridae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Scutelleridae 

Scutelleridae 

Anthomyiidae 

Anthomyiidae 

Anthomyiidae 

Curculionidae 

Curculionidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Poduridae 

Elateridae 

Ichneumonidae 

Miridae 



- 32 - 



Labops hesperus Uhler 

Labops simulans Stal 

Laccocera vittipennis Van Duzee 

Lepesoma alteranata (Horn) 

Leptacinus intermedius Don 

Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) 

Leucostoma simplex (Fallen) 

Liburrta occulusa Van Duzee 

Liburna pellucida (Fabricius) 

Liburna sp. 

Ligyrocoris sylvestris (Linnaeus) 

Limosia cilicauda (Malloch) 

Limothrips denticornis Haliday 

Liriomya sp. 

Listronotus sp. 

Litomeris debilis (Uhler) 

Livia sp. 

Lonchoptera furcata Fallen 

Longi tarsus sp. 

Lopidea dakota Knight 

Lopus sp. 

Loricera pilicornis (Fabricius) 

Loxostege cereralis (Zeller) 

Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) 

Lygaeus kalmii Stal 

Lygidea sp. 

Lygus borealis (Kelton) 

Lygus desertinus Knight 

Lygus elisus Van Duzee 

Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) 

Lygus rufidorsus (Kelton) 

Lygus shulli (Knight) 

Lygus unctuosus Kelton 

Lytta nuttali Say 

Macrohaltica sp. 

Macros-teles fascifrons (Stal) 



Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Hemiptera 

Diptera 

Thysanoptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Homoptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 



Miridae 

Miridae 

Delphacidae 

Curculionidae 

Staphylinidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Tachinidae 

Delphacidae 

Delphacidae 

Delphacidae 

Lygaeidae 

Muscidae 

Thripidae 

Agromyzidae 

Curculionidae 

Miridae 

Psyllidae 

Lonchopteridae 

Chrysomelidae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Carabidae 

Pyralidae 

Pyralidae 

Lygaeidae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Meloidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Cicadellidae 



- 33 - 



Malachius aeneus (Linnaeus) 

Megachile brevis Say 

Megachile denti tarsus Sladen 

Megachile frigida Sm. 

Megachile melanophae Sm. 

Megachile perhirta Ckll. 

Megachile rotundata Fabricius 

Megalotamus quinquespinosus Say 

Megaselia sp. 

Melanophthalma sp. 

Melanoplus bivittatus (Say) 

Melanoplus femurrubrum (DeGeer) 

Melanoplus packardii Scudder 

Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) 

Melanotrichus coagulatus (Uhler) 

Melanotrichus flavosparsus (Sahlberg) 

Metabletus americanus (Dejean) 

Metasyrphus lapponicus (Zetterstedt) 

Metasyrphus sp. 

Meteorus proximus Cress. 

Microlestes linearis (LeConte) 

MicrorTiophala vittata (Fabricius) 

Mimoceps insignis Uhler 

Monoxia prob. angularis (LeConte) 

Monoxia puncticollis (Say) 

Mordellistena sp. 

Musca domestica Linnaeus 

Myospila meditabunda (Fabricius) 

Nabis alternatus Parshley 

Nabis limbatus Dahlbom 

Nabis subcoleoptratus (Kirby) 

Nabis van duzee Kirk 

Nanodes canadensis (Brown) 

Nearctaphis baker i (Cowen) 

Neohypnus hamatus (Say) 

Neohypnus obscurus (Er.) 



Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hemiptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Orthoptera 

Orthoptera 

Orthoptera 

Orthoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Hymenoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 



Melyridae 

Megachilidae 

Megachilidae 

Megachilidae 

Megachilidae 

Megachilidae 

Megachilidae 

Coreidae 

Phoridae 

Lathridiidae 

Acrididae 

Acrididae 

Acrididae 

Acrididae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Carabidae 

Syrphidae 

Syrphidae 

Braconidae 

Carabidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Miridae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Mordellidae 

Muscidae 

Muscidae 

Nabidae 

Nabidae 

Nabidae 

Nabidae 

Curculionidae 

Aphididae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 



- 34 - 



Neottiglossa undata Say 
Notaris bimaculata (Fabricius) 
Notiophilus aquaticus (Linneaus) 
Notoxus anchora Hentz 
Nysius ericae Schilling 
Nysius minutus Uhler 
Odontothrips loti (Haliday) 
Oedostethus femoral is LeConte 
Onthophagus nuchicornis Linnaeus 
Ophyra leucostoma (Wiedemann) 
Orectoderus obliquus Uhler 
Ocius tristicolor (White) 
Orthotylus fusicornis Knight 
Otiorhynchus ovatus (Linnaeus) 
Pachybcachis sp. 
Pachyneuron sp . 
Panscopus aequalis (Horn) 
Paroxyna pygmaea Novak 
Pegomyia sp. 

Peleteria iterans (Walker) 
Perilitus see Dinocampus 
Peritrichus saskatchewanensis Barb. 
Phalacrus sp. 

Philaenarcys bilineata (Say) 
Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus) 
Philonthus concinnus Grav. 
Philonthus fuscipennis Mannh. 
Philonthus lautus Csy. 
Philonthus occidentalis Horn 
Philonthus sordidus (Grav.) 
Philonthus varius (Gyllenhal) 
Phyllobaenus sp. 
Phyllotreta albionica LeConte 
Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) 
Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius) 
Phymata Pennsylvania Handl . 



Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Thysanoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Homoptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 



Pentatomidae 

Curculionidae 

Carabidae 

Anthicidae 

Lygaeidae 

Lygaeidae 

Thripidae 

Elateridae 

Scarabaeidae 

Muscidae 

Miridae 

Anthocoridae 

Miridae 

Curculionidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Pteromalidae 

Curculionidae 

Tephrididae 

An thorny iidae 

Tachinidae 

Braconidae 

Lygaeidae 

Phalacridae 

Cercopidae 

Cercopidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Cleridae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Phymatidae 



35 - 



Phytocoris pallidicornis Reuter 

Piesma cinerea Say 

Plagiognathus obscurus Uhler 

Plagniognathus sp. 

Platystethus americanus Er. 

Podisus placidus Uhler 

Poecilus lucublandus (Say) 

Pollenia rudis (Fabricius) 

Polymerus prob. rufipes Knight 

Prairiana cinerea (Uhler) 

Praon prob. exoletum palitans Muesbeck 

Pcaon pequodorum Vierck 

Psammotettix lividellus (Zett.) 

Pseudoleria sp. 

Pseudothonomus sp. 

Psilocephala aldrichi Coquillett 

Psylla sp. 

Psylloides convexior LeConte 

Psylloides punctulata Melsheimer 

Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) 

Quadrularia laetifica (Rob.-Des.) 

Raphium campestre Cn. 

Ravinia querula (Walker) 

Rhopalus crassicornis (Linnaeus) 

Saldula palustris (Douglas) 

Sarcophaga harpax (Pandelle) 

Sarcophaga sinuata Meigen 

Sargus coprarius (Linnaeus) 

Sargus viridis Say 

Scaeva pyrastri (Linnaeus) 

Scathophaga stercoraria Linnaeus 

Scellus monstrosus Osten. Sacken 

Sciocoris microphthalmus Flor. 

Scotogramma see Discestra 

Scymnus (Pullus) caudalis LeConte 

Scymnus (Pullus) postpictus Casey 



Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Hemiptera 

Homoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Homoptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Hemiptera 

Lepidoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 



Miridae 

Piesmidae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Staphylinidae 

Pentatomidae 

Carabidae 

Calliphoridae 

Miridae 

Cicadellidae 

Aphidiidae 

Aphidiidae 

Cicidellidae 

Heleomyzidae 

Curculionidae 

Therevidae 

Psyllidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Carabidae 

Muscidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Sarcophagidae 

Coreidae 

Saldidae 

Sarcophagidae 

Sarcophagidae 

Stratiomyiidae 

Stratiomyiidae 

Syrphidae 

Scathophagidae 

Dolichopodidae 

Pentatomidae 

Noctuidae 

Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 



- 36 - 



Scymnus (Pullus) puncticollis LeConte Coleoptera 

Scymnus sp. Coleoptera 

Sehirus cinctus (Palisot de Beauvois) Hemiptera 

Sinea diadema Fabricius Hemiptera 

Sitona cylindricollis Fahraeus Coleoptera 

Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius) Coleoptera 

Sitona lepidus Gyllenhal Coleoptera 

Sitona scissifrons Say Coleoptera 

Slaterobius insignis (Uhler) Hemiptera 

Slatecocoris prob. stygicus Say Hemiptera 

Sminthurinus elegans (Fitch) Collembola 

Sminthurinus medialis (Mills) Collembola 

Sorhoanus uhler i (Oman) Homoptera 

Sphaerophoria philanthus (Meigen) Diptera 

Sphaerophoria robusta see S. philanthus Diptera 

Sphaerophoria sp. Diptera 

Sphragisticus nebulosus (Fall.) Hemiptera 

Stenodema trispinosum (Reuter) Hemiptera 

Stenodema vicinum (Provancher) Hemiptera 

Stenodema virens Linnaeus Hemiptera 

Stenolophus comma (Fabricius) Coleoptera 

Stenolophus conjunctus (Say) Coleoptera 

Stenopogon inquinatus Loew Diptera 
Stenus (Hypostenus) reconditus 

breviusculus Puthz Coleoptera 

Stenus (s.st.) morio Grav. Coleoptera 

Stenus (s.st.) occidentalis Csy ? Coleoptera 

Stenus vicinoides Puthz Coleoptera 

Stictocephala basalis (Walker) Homoptera 

Stictocephala bisonia (Kopp and Yke) Homoptera 

Stictopleuris punctiventris (Dallas) Hemiptera 

Stictopleuris viridicatus (Uhler) Hemiptera 

Stillbus apicalis Melsheimer Coleoptera 

Stillbus sp. Coleoptera 

Stratiomys normula Loew Diptera 

Streptanus deceptus (Sd. and DeLong) Homoptera 



Coccinellidae 

Coccinellidae 

Cydnidae 

Reduviidae 

Curculionidae 

Curculionidae 

Curculionidae 

Curculionidae 

Lygaeidae 

Miridae 

Sminthuridae 

Sminthuridae 

Cicidellidae 

Syrphidae 

Syrphidae 

Syrphidae 

Lygaeidae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Carabidae 

Carabidae 

Asilidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Membracidae 

Membracidae 

Coreidae 

Coreidae 

Phalacridae 

Phalacridae 

Stratiomyiidae 

Cicidellidae 



- 37 - 



Syritta pipiens (Linnaeus) 
Syrphus torvus Osten Sacken 
Syrphus vitripennis Meigen 
Systoechus vulgaris Loew 
Tachyporus inornatus Campbell 
Tachyporus mexicanus Sharp 
Tachyporus nitidulus (Fabricius) 
Tephritis sp. 

Tetanops myopaeformis (Roder) 
Tetraopes femoratus LeConte 
Thaumatomyia bistriata (Walker) 
Thaumatomyia glabra Meigen 
Thereva duplicis Coguillett 
Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) 
Thrips tabaci Lindeman 
Thyanta punctiventris Van Duzee 
Trichodes nutalli Kir by 
Trigonotylus coelestialium (Kirkaldy) 
Trigonotylus ruficornis (Geoffroy) 
Trirhabda attenuata (Say) 
Trirhabda nr borealis Blake 
Trirhabda virgata LeConte 
Tychius picirostris (Fabricius) 
Wesmalia pendula Foester 
Xylentinus fucatus LeConte 
Xylocoris umbrinus (Van Duzee) 
Xylocoris umbrinus Van Duzee 
Zeridoneus costalis Van Duzee 



Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Coleoptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Diptera 

Homoptera 

Thysanoptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hymenoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 

Hemiptera 



Syrphidae 

Syrphidae 

Syrphidae 

Bombyliidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Staphylinidae 

Tephrididae 

Otitidae 

Cerambydidae 

Chloropidae 

Chloropidae 

Therevidae 

Aphididae 

Thripidae 

Pentatomidae 

Cleridae 

Miridae 

Miridae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomelidae 

Chrysomeiidae 

Curculionidae 

Braconidae 

Anobiidae 

Miridae 

Anthocoridae 

Lygaeidae 



- 38 



Appendix II. Species of Mites in Alfalfa 



Abrolophus sp. 

Amblyseius iroquois Chant and Hansell 
Ameroseius corbicula (Sowerby) 
Biscirus silvaticus (Kramer) 
Cunaxoides biscutum (Nesbitt) 
Oribatula tibialis (Nicolet) 
Petrobia latens (Muller) 
Tetranychus urticae (Koch) 
Trombidium sp. 



Acari 
Acari 
Acari 
Acari 
Acari 
Acari 
Acari 
Acari 
Acari 



Erythraeidae 

Phytoseiidae 

Ameroseiidae 

Bdellidae 

Cunaxidae 

Oritubulidae 

Tetranychidae 

Tetranychidae 

Trombiidae 



LIBRARY ' BIBUOTHEQUE 



AGRICULTURE CANADA OTTAWA K1A 0C5 

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